CITY OF PARIS

The ancient city of Lutetia/Paris became the capital of the Frankish Kingdom ca 509.
Although the French monarchs later sometimes transferred their residence to other
places – most notably Versailles – the town always remained the major administrative
center of France.
__________________________________________________________________________________

CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

Since 1794 Paris was under the direct authority of the French government represented
since 1800 by :

– the Prefect of the Seine, in charge of administrative affairs
– the Prefect of Police, in charge of security and public health (1)

(V) = Prefects appointed or maintained in office by the Vichy regime.

Prefects of the Seine Department
Préfets du Département de la Seine

1870 – 1871 Jules François Camille Ferry,
until may 1871 delegate of the Provisional
Government for the Seine department
(only nominal in mar – may 1871 when Paris
was ruled by the Commune) 1832 – 1893
1871 – 1872 Jean-Baptiste Léon Say 1826 – 1896
1872 – 1873 Marc Antoine Calmon 1815 – 1890
1873 – 1879 Émile Gustave Ferdinand Duval 1827 – 1896
1879 – 1882 Ferdinand Hérold 1828 – 1882
1882 – 1882 Thomas Charles Floquet 1828 – 1896
1882 – 1883 Louis Oustry 1821 – 1898
1883 – 1896 Eugène René Poubelle 1831 – 1907
1896 – 1911 Justin Germain Casimir de Selves 1848 – 1934
1911 – 1918 Marcel François Delanney 1863 – 1944
1918 – 1922 Auguste Alexandre Guillaume Autrand 1858 – 1949
1922 – 1924 Hippolyte Juillatd 1871 – 1926
1924 – 1925 Jean Henri Armand Naudin 1869 – 1938
1925 – 1929 Paul Frédéric Bouju 1868 – 1941
1929 – 1934 Georges Édouard Alexandre Renard 1883 – 1935
1934 – 1940 Achille Joseph Henri Villey-Desmeserets 1878 – 1953
1940 – 1942 Charles Paul Magny (V) 1884 –
1942 – 1944 René Bouffet (V)
1944 – 1946 Marcel Pierre Flouret, first Prefect
of the Seine appointed by the Provisional
Government 1892 – 1971

Police Prefects
Préfets de Police

1870 Émile, Comte de Kératry 1832 – 1904
1870 Antoine Edmond Adam 1816 – 1877
1870 – 1871 Guillaume Ernest Cresson 1824 – 1902
1871 Albert Choppin* 1832 – 1893
1871 Louis Ernest Valentin 1812 – 1885
1871 – 1876 Charles Léon Renault (only nominal
in mar – may 1871 when Paris was
ruled by the Commune) 1839 – 1933
1876 – 1877 Félix Voisin 1832 – 1915
1877 – 1879 Edme Albert Gigot 1835 – 1913
1879 – 1881 Louis Andrieux 1840 – 1931
1881 – 1885 Jean Louis Ernest Camescasse 1838 – 1897
1885 – 1887 Jean Joseph Arthur Gragnon 1844 – 1914
1887 – 1888 Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois 1851 – 1925
1888 – 1893 Henri Auguste Lozé 1850 – 1915
1893 – 1897 Louis Jean Baptiste Lépine 1846 – 1933
1897 – 1899 Marie Charles Blanc 1857 – 1915
1899 – 1913 Louis Jean Baptiste Lépine (2x)
1913 – 1914 Célestin Hennion 1862 – 1915
1914 – 1917 Émile Marie Laurent 1852 – 1930
1917 Louis Eugène Albéric Hudelo 1868 – 1945
1917 – 1921 Fernand Jérôme Urbain Raux 1863 –
1921 – 1922 Alexandre Louis Henri Robert Leullier 1870 – 1922
1922 – 1924 Jean Henri Armand Naudin s.a.
1924 – 1927 Benoît Alfred Morain 1864 – 1938
1927 – 1934 Jean-Baptiste Pascal Eugène Chiappe 1878 – 1940
1934 Adrien Bonnefoy-Sibour 1881 – 1966
1934 – 1941 Roger Marie Félix Langeron 1882 – 1966
1941 Camille Marie Auguste Marchand* 1873 – 1972
1941 – 1942 Adm. François Marc Alphonse Bard (V) 1889 – 1944
1942 – 1944 Amédée Félix Bussière (V) 1886 – 1953
1944 – 1947 Charles Léon Luizet, first Police
Prefect appointed by the Provisional
Government 1903 – 1947

Administrators of occupied Paris 1940 – 1944

German Military Administrators

1940 – 1944 See here

Leaders of the insurrection of 1944

On Aug 19 1944 the French resistance revolted against the Germans and toke control
of large parts of the city.
Fighting continued until the German surrender on Aug 25.

Chairman of the Paris Liberation Committee
(Président du Comité parisien de Libération)

1944 André Tollet 1… – 2001

Commander of the FFI (Forces françaises de l’Intérieur) region of Île-de-France

1944 LtCol. Henri Tanguy “Rol-Tanguy” 1908 – 2002

(1) Since 1795 – and except for a brief period in 1870 – 1871 (see below) –
Paris did not even have a central local administration.

The town was divided into 12 – later 20 – districts (arrondissements)
headed by district mayors (maires d’arrondissements) with very little
power (supervision of schools, keeping of the conscription lists, etc)

Since 1834 there did exist a Municipal Council (Conseil municipal) for
the whole town but its president – elected for one year – only chaired
the meetings and performed some representative tasks.

After the proclamation of the republic in 1870 a central administration
(Mairie centrale) was restored to supervise and coordinate the work of the
arrondissements, but the next year it was already abolished.

Mayor of Paris
Maire de Paris

1870 Étienne Arago, resigned and replaced
by Jules Ferry (s.a.) as delegate to the
Mairie centrale 1802 – 1892

List of the Arrondissements

(as created in 1859 after the annexation of several villages to Paris)

I Le Louvre XI Popincourt
II La Bourse XII Reuilly
III Le Temple XIII Les Gobelins
IV L’Hôtel-de-Ville XIV L’Observatoire
V Le Panthéon XV Vaugirard
VI Le Luxembourg XVI Passy
VII Le Palais-Bourbon XVII Les Batignolles-Monceau
VIII L’Élysée XVIII La Butte-Montmartre
IX L’Opéra XIX Les Buttes-Chaumont
X L’Enclos-Saint-Laurent XX Ménilmontant

ROYAL AND BONAPARTIST PRETENDERS

ROYAL PRETENDERS

Bourbon

The House of Bourbon ruled France 1589 – 1792, 1814 – 1815 and 1815 – 1830.
When the direct French line finished in 1883, the claim passed to the Spanish line.

Bourbon-France

1844 – 1883 (Henri V) Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie
Dieudonné, Comte de Chambord, grandson of
Charles X (1757 – 1836) last Bourbon King
of France 1824 – 1830 1820 – 1883

Bourbon-Spain

Bourbon-Anjou – Branch of Carlos

1883 – 1887 (Jean III) Jean Charles Marie Isidore,
Comte de Montizon (also Carlist King
Juan III of Spain 1861 – 1868),
descendant of King Carlos IV of Spain
(1748 – 1819, r. 1788 – 1808) 1822 – 1887
1887 – 1909 (Charles XI), Charles Marie de los
Dolores Jean Isidore Joseph, etc., Duc
de Madrid, son (also Carlist King Carlos
VII of Spain 1868 – 1909) 1848 – 1909
1909 – 1931 (Jacques I), Jaime Jean Charles Alphonse
Philippe, Duc de Madrid, son (also Carlist
King Jaime III of Spain 1909 -1931) 1870 – 1931
1931 – 1936 (Charles XII Alphonse), Alphonse Charles
Ferdinand Marie Jacques etc., Duc de
San Jaime, brother of Charles XI (s.a.)
(also Carlist King Alfonso Carlos I of
Spain 1931 – 1936) 1849 – 1936

Bourbon-Anjou – Branch of Isabella

1936 – 1941 (Alphonse I), Alphonse Léon Ferdinand
Marie etc. (also King Alfonso XIII of
Spain 1886 – 1931/41) 1886 – 1941
1941 – 1975 (Henri VI), Jaime Luitpold Isabeline
Henri etc., Duc de Ségovie, son 1908 – 1975

Bourbon – Orléans

The House of Bourbon-Orléans ruled France 1830 – 1848

1850 – 1894 (Louis Philippe II, Philippe VII)
Louis Philippe Albert, Comte de Paris
grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of
the French (1773 – 1850, r.1830 – 1848) 1838 – 1894
1894 – 1926 (Philippe VIII) Louis Philippe Robert,
Duc d’Orléans et Comte de Paris, son 1869 – 1926
1926 – 1940 (Jean III) Jean Pierre Clément Marie,
Duc de Guise, nephew 1874 – 1940
1940 – 1999 (Henri VI) Henri Robert Ferdinand
Marie Louis Philippe, Comte de Paris,
son 1908 – 1999
__________________________________________________________________________________

BONAPARTIST PRETENDERS

The House of Bonaparte ruled France 1804 – 1814, 1815 and 1852 – 1870.

1873 – 1879 Prince Napoléon Eugène Louis, son of
Emperor Napoléon III (1808 – 1873, r.
1852 – 1870, Head of the House Bonaparte
1870 – 1873), died in the Zulu War 1836 – 1879
1879 – 1891 Prince Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul
“Jérôme”, descendant of Jérôme Bonaparte
(1784 – 1860), king of Westphalia 1807
– 1813 1822 – 1891
1891 – 1926 Prince Napoléon Victor Jérôme Frédéric,
son 1862 – 1926
1926 – 1997 Prince Napoléon Louis Jérôme Victor
Emmanuel Paul, son 1914 – 1997

SOUTHERN FRANCE 1870

At the proclamation of the French republic in 1870, radical republican committees
or commissions toke power in several southern cities like Lyon and Marseille.
They later united into the federative Ligue du Midi pour la Défense nationale de la
République (Southern League for the National Defence of the Republic), whose aims
were not only the defence of the region – the 15 southern and Algerian departments
– against a possible further German advance, but also the protection of their local
liberties.
The movement gradually lost in importance and by the end of the year the central
government had restored its authority.

President of the Southern Federative Organization

1870 Alphonse François Henry Esquiros, Prefect
of the Bouches-du-Rhône department 1812 – 1876

In the same period Lyon and Marseille were also the seat of two anarchist attempts
to seize power :

– on sep 28 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin (1814 – 1876) seized power in Lyon and
established a Comité de Salut de la France that proclaimed the French state
abolished. He was expelled the next day.

– on nov 01 a Revolutionary Commune was proclaimed in Marseille. It was headed by
Adolphe Carcassonne and lasted until nov 07.

THE COMMUNE

In 1871 social and political unrest in Paris led to a revolt of leftist groups and
the proclamation of a revolutionary government styled Commune de Paris (so named in
remembrance of the earlier Commune of 1792).
Although there were some attempts to establish similar governments in other places,
the Commune actually remained isolated and was terminated by the French government
after an existence of two months (mar – may 1871).
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LEADERS OF THE COMMUNE

Central Committee of the Republican Federation of the National Guard
Comité central de la Fédération républicaine de la Garde nationale

The Paris Garde nationale – the city militia first founded in 1789 and abolished
in 1851 – was revived in 1870 to defend the town against a possible German attack.
It was divided into 20 battalions – each for one of the arrondissements – and was
the leading force of the revolt.
Its Central Committee (Comité central) was the highest revolutionary authority of
the revolt from mar 19 to mar 28, when it formally transferred all its powers to
the newly elected Assembly, styled Commune.
But even after this the Central Committee kept a leading position, especially in
military affairs.

Final composition before the transfer of power, changes occuring thereafter being
not listed

(III) = indicates the arrondissement.

1871 -… Andignoux (XV)
-Antoine Arnaud de l’Ariège (III) 1831 – 1885
-Georges Léon Arnold (X) 1833 – 1895
-Adolphe Alphonse Assi (XI) 1841 – 1888
-… Avoine (XIV)
-Jules Nicolas Babick (X) 1820 – 1902
-… Barroud (XII)
-Jules Henri Martin Bergeret (XX) 1830 – 1905
-Alfred Édouard Billioray (XIV) 1841 – 1876
-Stanislas Xavier Pourille “Blanchet” (V) 1833 –
-… Bouit (XX)
-… Castioni (XV)
-Henri Chouteau (VI) 1834 – 1896
-Adolphe Hippolyte Clémence (IV) 1838 – 1889
-… Demeulle (IV)
-Clovis Joseph Dupont (III) 1830 – 1902
-… Fabre (XIII)
-… Ferrat (VI)
-François A. Fougeret (XII)
-… Gaudier (XV)
-Hubert Jean-Baptiste Geresme (XII) 1826 – 1890
-… Gouhier (III)
-J. Grollard (XVIII)
-… Guiral (XVIII)
-… Josselin (XVIII)
-F. Henry (XIX)
-François “Francis” Jourde (V) 1843 – 1893
-… Lavalette (XIX)
-Maxime Lisbonne (X) 1839 – 1905
-Charles Maljournal (XX) 1841 – 1894
-Édouard Auguste Moreau (IV) 1836 – 1871
-Henri Joseph Mortier (XI) 1843 – 1894
-… Paty (XIII)
-… Pouillet (XIII)
-… Prudhomme (XI)
-Gabriel Ranvier (XX) 1828 – 1879
-Nicolas Constant Rousseau (V)
-Louis Eugène Varlin (XVII) 1838 – 1871

Presidents of the Commune
Présidents de la Commune

1871
Charles Beslay* (opening session of
mar 28) 1795 – 1878
Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais (from
mar 29 to apr 05) 1826 – 1901

From now a new president was elected for each session. (it’s possible that not all
sessions could be retraced)

1871
Francois Louis Parisel (session of apr 05) 1841 – 1878
Edmond Alfred Goupil (session of apr 06) 1838 –
Arthur Arnould (session of apr 07) 1833 – 1895
Henri Sixte-Casse “Fortuné” (session of
apr 08) 1822 – 1882
Charles Beslay (session of apr 09) (2x)
Arthur Arnould (session of apr 10 and
sessions of apr 11) (2x)
Auguste Jean Marie Vermorel (sessions of
apr 12) 1841 – 1871
Arthur Arnould (session of apr 13) (3x)
Alfred Édouard Billioray (session of apr
14 and first session of apr 15) s.a.
Jean François Pascal Grousset (second
session of apr 15) 1844 – 1909
Arthur Arnould (session of apr 16) (4x)
Charles Ostyn (session of apr 17) 1823 – 1912
apr 18 : …
Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais (session of
apr 19) (2x)
Auguste Vincent Viard (sessions of apr 20) 1836 – 1892
Louis Eugène Varlin (sessions of apr 21
and of apr 22) s.a.
Eugène Protot (session of apr 23) 1839 – 1921
Jules Henri Martin Bergeret (session of
apr 24) s.a.
Gabriel Ranvier (session of apr 25) s.a.
apr 26 : …
Jules Allix (session of apr 27) 1818 – 1897
Jules Vallès (session of apr 28) 1832 – 1885
apr 29 : …
Stanislas Xavier Pourille “Blanchet”
(first session of apr 30) s.a.
Léon “Léo” Meillet (second session of
apr 30 and session of may 01) 1843 – 1909
Jean François Pascal Grousset (session of
may 02) (2x)
Philémon Rastoul (session of may 03) 1835 – 1875
may 04 : …
Jules Johannard (session of may 05) 1843 – 1892
Charles Ostyn (session of may 06) (2x)
may 07 : …
Gen. Émile Désiré François Eudes (session
of may 08) 1843 – 1888
Alfred Édouard Billioray (first session of
may 09) (2x)
Félix Aimé Pyat (second session of may 09) 1810 – 1899
may 10 – may 11 : …
Félix Aimé Pyat (session of may 12) (2x)
may 13 – may 16 : possibly no sessions
Léon “Léo” Meillet (session of may 17) (2x) 09
may 18 : …
Dominique Théophile Régère
(session of may 19) 1816 – 1893
may 20 : …
Jules Vallès (last formal session of
may 21) (2x)

Committee of Public Welfare
Comité de Salut public

As the military situation degraded the Commune transferred most of its powers to
a Committee of Public Welfare

In office may 01 – may 25

1871 -Gabriel Ranvier s.a.
-Antoine Arnaud de l’Ariège s.a.
-Charles Gérardin (until may 09) 1843 – 1921
-Léon “Léo” Meillet (until may 09 and
again from may 17) s.a.
-Félix Aimé Pyat (until may 09) s.a.
-Charles Ferdinand Gambon (since may 09) 1820 – 1887
-Gen. Émile Désiré François Eudes
(from may 09) s.a.
-Louis Charles Delescluze (may 09 – may 12) s.a.
-Alfred Édouard Billioray (since may 12) s.a.
-Simon Dereure (from may 17) 1838 – 1900
-Jules Johannard (from may 17) s.a.
__________________________________________________________________________________

EXECUTIVE COMMISSIONS AND DELEGATES

Executive Commission (I)
Commission exécutive

The Commune established several commissions (finances, foreign affairs, war, justice
etc.). One of them was in charge of executive affairs, its members holding however
no separate portfolios.

In office mar 29 – apr 20

1871 -Gen. Émile Désiré François Eudes (until
apr 03) s.a.
-Gen. Jules Henri Martin Bergeret (until
apr 03) s.a.
-Émile Victor “Victoire” Duval (until
apr 04) 1840 – 1871
-Edmé Marie Gustave Tridon 1841 – 1872
-Édouard Vaillant 1840 – 1915
-Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais (until …) s.a.
-Félix Aimé Pyat s.a.
-Frédéric Étienne Cournet (since apr 03) 1839 – 1885
-Louis Charles Delescluze (since apr 04) 1809 – 1871
-Augustin Germain Avrial (since apr 10) 1840 – 1904
-Auguste Jean Marie Vermorel (since …) s.a.

On apr 20 a new Executive Commission was formed.
This time it comprized one delegate of each of the other commissions acting as a
kind of minister.
This second Executive Commission was abollshed when the Committee of Public Welfare
(s.a.) was created, but the delegates continued in office.

Delegate of Foreign Affairs
Délégué aux Affaires étrangères

1871 Jean François Pascal Grousset (1) s.a.

(1) His main – if not only – activities included the attempts to coordinate
the revolutionary activities outside Paris (s.b.) and failed negociations
with the German Commander before Paris to obtain arms.

Delegates of War (2)
Délégués à la Guerre

1871 Gustave Paul Cluseret 1823 – 1900
1871 Louis Rossel 1844 – 1871
1871 Louis Charles Delescluze s.a.
1871 Louis Eugène Varlin* s.a.

(2) Military affairs were a real mess for most of the time :

– Responsability for military affairs was at first divided between the
Military Commission, the Delegate of War and the Central Committee,
each claiming to be the highest military authority.
As defeat approached they finally reached an agreement whereby the
Delegate was given responsability over the military operations and
the Central Committee only retaining administrative functions.
Soon afterwards the Central Committee however toke full control and
appointed Édouard Moureau (s.a.) as Civil Commssioner to supervise
Delegate Delescluze.

Military Commission

In office mar 29 – may ..

1871 -Jean Louis Pindy (until apr 20) 1840 – 1917
-Gen. Émile Désiré François Eudes
(until apr 20) s.a.
-Émile Victor “Victoire” Duval
(until apr 20) s.a.
-Jules Henri Martin Bergeret
(until apr 20 and again from
may 15) s.a.
-Jean-Baptiste Chardon (until apr 20) 1839 – 1900
-Gustave Flourens (until apr 20) 1838 – 1871
-Gabriel Ranvier (until may 15) s.a.
-Louis Charles Delescluze (from
apr 21 to may 15) s.a.
-Edmé Marie Gustave Tridon (from
apr 21) s.a.
-Augustin Germain Avrial (from apr 21) s.a.
-Arthur Arnould (from apr 21 to may 15) s.a.
-Frédéric Étienne Cournet (from may 15) s.a.
-Hubert Jean-Baptiste Géresme
(from may 15) 1826 – 1890
-Charles François Ledroit (from may 15) 1818 –
-Alphonse Nicolas Sébastien
Joseph Lonclans (from may 15)
-Auguste Alexandre Sicard (from may 15
to may 17) 1839 –
-Raoul Urbain (from may 15) 1837 – 1902
-Jules Johannard (from may 15) s.a.
-Louis Eugène Varlin (from may 15) s.a.

– At the outbreak of the revolt Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807 -1882) had been
appointed Commander of the National Guard. As he had however already
left the country, there actually was no military command for some time,
each unit, even each man now acting as it/he liked. It was only under
Delegate Rossel that a semblance of command was restored and that three
“regional” commanders were appointed. But like the delegate himself they
soon also lost all authority to Civil Commissioners, appointed to each
of the commands.

Commanders and Civil Commissioners

– Gen. Jaroslaw Dombrowski 1836 – 1871
+ Simon Dereure, Civil Commissioner s.a.

– Gen. Napoléon François Paul Thomas La Cecilia 1835 – 1878
+ Jules Johannard, Civil Commissioner s.a.

– Gen. Walery Wroblewski 1836 – 1908
+ Léon “Léo” Meillet, Civil Commissioner s.a.

Delegates of General Security
Délégués à la Sécurite générale

(also toke over the duties of the Police Prefect)

1871 Raoul Rigault 1846 – 1871
1871 Frédéric Étienne Cournet s.a.
1871 Théophile Charles Gilles Ferré 1846 – 1871

Delegate of Justice
Délégué à la Justice

1871 Eugène Protot s.a.

Delegate of Finances
Délégué aux Finances

1871 François “Francis” Jourde s.a.

Delegate of Subsistence
Délégué aux Subsistances

1871 Auguste Vincent Viard s.a.

Delegate of the Public Services
Délégué aux Services publics

1871 Jules Andrieu 1837 – 1884

Delegates for Labour and Exchange
Délégués au Travail et à l’Échange

1871 Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais s.a.
1871 Léo Frankel 1844 – 1896

Delegate of Instruction
Délégué à l’Enseignement

1871 Édouard Vaillant s.a.
__________________________________________________________________________________

LEADERS OF OTHER COMMUNES

As the news of the revolt in Paris spred, revolutionary agitation also started in
several other places : Bordeaux, Le Creusot, Limoges, Mâcon, Narbonne, etc.
Most agitation was however immediately suppressed and only a handful of shortliving
Communes were actually established.

LE CREUSOT

On mar 26 the town of Le Creusot proclaimed itself an Independent Commune.

Mayor
Maire

1871 Jean-Baptiste Dumay 1841 – 1926

The following day regular troops entered the city and restored the authority of the
French government.

LYON

On mar 23 the National Guard seized power and proclaimed a Provisional Commune.

Communal Commission
Commission communale

1871 -… Bouvatier
-… Crestin
-… Durand
-… Perret
-… Velay

As they had little support the members of the Commission left during the nignt and
by the morning of mar 24 the Commune had ceased to exist.

Unrest continued however in some districts and on apr 30 a second attempt was made
to establish a Commune.

Revolutionary Commission
Commission révolutionnaire

1871 …

The movement was suppressed on may 01.

MARSEILLE

On mar 23 the National Guard seized power and proclaimed the Revolutionary Commune
of Marseille.

President of the Departmental Commission
Président de la Commission départementale

1871 Gaston Crémieux 1836 – 1871

On apr 03 French governmental forces entered the city and on apr 04 the revoltees
surrendered.

NARBONNE

The Commune of Narbonne was proclaimed on mar 24.

Leader of Commune

1871 Émile-Stanislas Digeon 1822 – 1894

The Commune was disbanded on mar 31 when regular forces entered the city.

SAINT-ÉTIENNE

The Commune of St Étienne was proclaimed by the National Guard on mar 24.

Executive Commission
Commission exécutive

1871 …

It ended on mar 28.

TOULOUSE

The Commune of Toulouse was proclaimed by the National Guard on 24 mar.

Executive Commission
Commission exécutive

1871 …

It surrendered to the regular forces on mar 28.

ADMINISTRATORS OF GERMAN OCCUPIED FRANCE 1870 – 1873 AND 1914 – 1918
See here for the occupation 1940 – 1944
ADMINISTRATORS 1870 – 1873

In 1870 German forces – actually the armies of Baden, Bavaria, the Confederation
of Northern Germany and of Württemberg – occupied large parts of France north of
the Loire (1)

(1) The occupied zone covered some 30 departments running from Calvados in
the North-West to the Jura in the South-East.

French enclaves until the end of the war were the fortress of Belfort
[Commander : Col. Pierre Marie Philippe Aristide Denfert-Rochereau (1823
– 1878)], the departments of the Nord and of the Pas-de-Calais [Commander
of the Armée du Nord : Gen. Louis Léon César Faidherbe (1818 – 1889)] and
the towns of Le Havre [Commander : Adm. Amédée Ernest Barthélemy Mouchez
(1821 – 1892)] and of Paris, seat of the French government.

Suprme Commander (in name)
Oberkommandierender

1870 – 1871 Wilhelm I (Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig),
König von Preussen and since jan 1871
Kaiser des Deutschen Reiches 1797 – 1888

Commander in Chief
Oberbefehlshaber

1870 – 1871 GenFieldMarsh. Helmuth Karl Bernhard
Graf von Molkte “der Ältere”,
Chief of the Prussian General staff 1800 – 1891

REGIONAL COMMANDERS AND ADMINISTRATORS 1870 – 1871

Commanders of the German Armies operating in France

In the war zones the occupied territories were under the administration of the
“Etappenverwaltungen” attached to each of the armies operating in the area.

Commanders of the First Army
Befehlshaber der I Armee

1870 InfGen. Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz 1796 – 1877
1870 – 1871 Majgen. Karl Rochus Edwin Freiherr von
Manteuffel 1809 – 1885
1871 InfGen. August Karl Friedrich Christian
von Göben 1816 – 1880

Commander of the Second Army
Befehlshaber der II Armee

1870 – 1871 GenFieldMarsh. Friedrich Karl Nikolaus
Prinz von Preussen “der Rote Prinz” 1828 – 1885

Commander of the Third Army
Befehlshaber der III Armee

1870 – 1871 GenFieldMarsh. Friedrich Wilhelm
Nikolaus Karl Kronprinz von Preussen 1831 – 1888

Commander of the Fourth Army/Meuse Army
Befehlshaber der IV Armee/Maas-Armee

1870 – 1871 InfGen. Friedrich August Albert Anton
Ferdinand etc. Kronprinz von Sachsen 1828 – 1902

Commander of the Southern Army
Befehlshaber der Süd-Armee

1871 MajGen. Karl Rochus Edwin Freiherr von
Manteuffel s.a.

Governors General
Generalgouverneure

As advance progressed four Governments General were established in the “pacified”
territories :

– Nancy in 1870
– Reims in 1870
– Strasbourg in 1870
– Versailles in 1871

Governor General of Reims

(This Government general covered the Departments of the Aisne, the Ardennes and the
Marne)

1870 – 1871 …

Governor General of Versailles

(Territory covered by this Government General not known)

1871 Gen. Georg Friedrich Alfred Graf
von Fabrice 1818 – 1891

COMMANDERS OF THE GERMAN OCCUPATION FORCES

After the signing of the Peace Treaty of Frankfurt – by which parts of the eastern
departments were ceded to Germany (see Alsace – Lorraine) – most of Northern France
remained under German occupation until the payment of the war indemnity forseen in
the treaty.
By early 1872 only six departments (Ardennes, Haute-Marne, Marne, Meuse, Meurthe-
et-Moselle and Vosges) and the territory of Belfort were still occupied.
Haute-Marne and Marne were evacuated the same year, the other territories in 1873.

Commanders of the Occupation Army in France
Oberbefehlshaber der Okkupationsarmee in Frankreich

1871 Gen. Georg Friedrich Alfred von Fabrice s.a.
1871 – 1873 Majgen. Karl Rochus Edwin Freiherr
von Manteuffel s.a.
__________________________________________________________________________________

ADMINISTRATORS 1914 – 1918

In 1914 German troops invaded France and for the next 4 years were in occupation of
parts or all of its eastern and northeastern frontier departments :

– Aisne – Meuse
– Ardennes – Nord
– Marne – Oise
– Meurthe – Pas-de-Calais
– Meurthe-et-Moselle – Somme

Except for some minor territories (2) these occupied areas were under the authority
of the Etappenverwaltugen attached to the armies operating in the area.

(2) Parts of the department of the Ardennes (the cantons of Fumay and Givet in
the arrondissement of Rocroi and the canton of Monthermé in the Mézières
arrondissement) and of the Nord were temporarily attached to the Government
General of Belgium.
Parts of French Lorraine were given a separate administration.

In 1916 some of the Etappenverwaltungen in France also toke charge of minor
Belgian territories

GERMAN COMMANDERS

There never was one unified command for the forces operating in France, each Army
or Army Group operating under the direct authority of the German High Command.

The structure of the German Armies operating in France

Initially, in Aug – early Sep 1914, the following Armies were present :

(from North to South, also in Belgium)

– 1st Army
– 2nd Army
– 3rd Army
– 4th Army
– 5th Army

In Sep 1914 two new armies were transferred to the Western Front and by early 1915
the following Armies were present :

– 6th Army
– 1st Army, later disbanded
– 2nd Army
– 7th Army
– 3rd Army
– 5th Army

In jul 1916 a reconstructed 1st Army returned to the front, later joined by the
new 17th, 18th and 19th Armies (dec 1917 – feb 1918).
In the meanwhile the armies had been regrouped into Army Groups and by the end of
the War, in nov 1918, the German forces in France were divided as follows

(still from North to South)

Army Group Kronprinz Rupprecht

4th Army (in Belgian Flanders)
6th Army

Army Group Böhn

Formed in aug 1918 from two armies before part of Group Kronprinz Rupprecht

17th Army
2nd Army

Army Group Deutscher Kronprinz

18th Army
7th Army
1st Army
3rd Army

Army Group Gallwitz

5th Army
+ Army Command C (in Germany)

Army Group Albrecht von Württemberg

19th Army
+ Army Commands A and B (in Germany)

(The commanders are given until the end of the War)

Commander of the Army Group Kronprinz Rupprecht
Befehlshaber Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht

1916 – 1918 GenFieldMarsh. Kronprinz Rupprecht Maria
Luitpold Ferdinand von Bayern 1869 – 1955

Commanders of the 4th Army
Befehlshaber der IV Armee

1914 – 1918 see here

Commanders of the 6th Army
Befehlshaber der VI Armee

(also in part of the Belgian province of Hainaut since 1916)

1914 – 1916 GenFieldMarsh. Kronprinz
Rupprecht Maria Luitpold
Ferdinand von Bayern s.a.
1916 – 1917 ColGen. Ludwig Alexander
Friedrich August Philipp
Freiherr von Falkenhausen
(later Governor General of
Belgium) 1840 – 1936
1917 InfGen. Otto von Below 1853 – 1918
1917 – 1919 InfGen. Ferdinand von Quast 1850 – 1939

Commander of the Army Group Böhn
Befehlshaber Heeresgruppe Böhn

1918 ColGen. Maximilian “Max” von Böhn 1850 – 1921

Commanders of the 17th Army
Befehlshaber der XVII Armee

1918 InfGen. Otto von Below s.a.
1918 InfGen. Karl Bruno Julius
von Mudra 1851 – 1931

Commanders of the 2nd Army
Befehlshaber der II Armee

1914 – 1915 GenFieldMarsh. Karl Wilhelm
Paul von Bülow 1846 – 1921
1915 – 1916 InfGen. Friedrich “Fritz” von
Below 1853 – 1918
1916 ArtGen. Maximilian “Max” von
Gallwitz zu Dreyling 1852 – 1937
1916 – 1918 ColGen. Georg Kornelius
Adalbert von der Marwitz 1856 – 1929
1918 InfGen. Adolph Hans Karl von
Carlowitz 1859 – 1922

Commander of the Army Group Deutscher Kronprinz
Befehlshaber Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz

1916 – 1918 InfGen. Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Otto Ernst
von Hohenzollern Kronprinz von Preussen
“Deutscher Kronprinz” 1882 – 1951

Commander of the 18th Army
Befehlshaber der XVIII Armee

1917 – 1919 InfGen. Oskar Emil von Hutier 1857 – 1934

Commanders of the 7th Army
Befehlshaber der VII Armee

1914 – 1916 ColGen. Josias Oskar von
Heeringen 1850 – 1926
1916 – 1917 ColGen. Louis Theodor Richard
von Schubert 1850 – 1933
1917 – 1918 InfGen. Maximilian “Max” von
Böhn s.a.
1918 InfGen. Magnus von Eberhardt 1855 – 1939
1918 InfGen. Maximilian “Max” von
Böhn (2x)

Commanders of the 1st Army
Befehlshaber der I Armee

(also in part of the Belgian province of Hainaut since 1917)

1914 – 1915 ColGen. Alexander Heinrich
Rudolf von Kluck 1846 – 1934
1915 InfGen. Maximilian “Max” von
Fabeck 1854 – 1916
1915 – 1916 no 1st Army
1916 – 1918 InfGen. Friedrich “Fritz” von
Below s.a.
1918 InfGen. Karl Bruno Julius von
Mudra s.a.
1918 InfGen. Otto von Below 1857 – 1944
1918 InfGen. Magnus von Eberhardt s.a.

Commanders of the 3rd Army
Befehlshaber der III Armee

1914 ColGen. Max Clemens Lothar
Freiherr von Hausen 1846 – 1933
1914 – 1919 ColGen. Karl Wilhelm Georg
August Gottfried von Einem
“von Rothmaler” 1853 – 1934

Commander of the Army Group Gallwitz
Befehlshaber Heeresgruppe Gallwitz

1918 ArtGen. Maximilian “Max” von Gallwitz
zu Dreyling s.a.

Commanders of the 5th Army
Befehlshaber der V Armee

(also in part of the Belgian province of Luxembourg since 1917)

1914 – 1916 LtGen. Friedrich Wilhelm
Viktor Otto Ernst von
Hohenzollern Kronprinz von
Preussen “Deutscher Kronprinz” s.a.
1916 InfGen. Ewald Konstantin
Ferdinand Friedrich von Lochow 1855 – 1942
1916 – 1918 ArtGen. Maximilian “Max” von
Gallwitz zu Dreyling s.a.
1918 CavGen. Georg Kornelius
Adalbert von der Marwitz s.a.

Commander of the Army Group Duke Albrecht von Württemberg
Befehlshaber Heeresgruppe Herzog Albrecht von Württemberg

1917 – 1918 GenFieldMarsh. Albrecht Maria Alexander
Philipp Joseph Herzog von Württemberg 1865 – 1939

Commanders of the 19th Army
Befehlshaber der XIX Armee

1918 ColGen. Felix Graf von Bothmer 1852 – 1937
1918 InfGen. Karl Ritter von
Fasbender 1852 – 1933

FRENCH ADMINISTRATORS

After the German occupation the only French Prefect remaining in office was Jean-
Baptiste Félix Trepont (1862 – 1949) of the Département du Nord.
He had however very little power and was eventually taken as a hostage and expelled.
After this the major French officials dealing with the German authorities were the
Mayors (Maires) of the occupied towns and villages, like Charles Émile Marie Joseph
Delesalle (1850 – 1923) the mayor of Lille.

ADMINISTRATORS OF THE CRB, THE CF AND THE CL

(For more information on this subject see here)

The Commission for Relief in Belgium (CRB) informally extended its activities to the
occupied parts of France in the winter of 1914/1915.
After agreements had been reached with the Allies and the Germans this presence was
formalized and a Comité d’Alimentation du Nord de la France (Comité Français – CF
/Food Committee of Northern France) was established in Brussels to distribute the
relief goods in the region.
At the end of the war in 1918 the CF was replaced by a French Comité Général de
Ravitaillement des Régions Libérées (Comité Libérées – CL/General Committee of
Supply of the Liberated Regions) part of the Ministry of the Liberated Regions.

Chief Representatives and Directors of the of the CRB in France

Director in Paris

(Liaison officer between the CRB and the French authorities)

1915 – 1919 Louis Chevrillon

Chief Representatives of the CRB to the German Armies in Northern France at
Charleville (2)

1915 Vernon Lyman Kellogg (US) 1867 – 1937
1915 – 1916 Caspar Whitney (US)
1916 – 1917 Vernon Lyman Kellogg (2x)
1917 Tracy Barrett Kittredge (US) 1891 –
1917 – 1918 none

(2) German liason officer

1915 – 191. Maj. Friedrich von Kessler

Directors of the CRB for Northern France at Lille (after the armistice)

1918 Tracy Barrett Kittredge s.a.
1919 William Hallam Tuck (US)
1919 Perrin C. Galpin (US) 1889 – 1974

Presidents and Administrator of the CF and the CL

Presidents

1915 – 1918 Louis Guérin
1918 – 1919 Maurice Le Blan

Administrator

1915 – 191. Edmond Labbé 1868 – 1944

FRENCH REGIONS 1941 – 1946

Until the Revolution of 1789, France was a collection of feudal lands, united under
one rule by the Kings of France in the course of the previous centuries.
Although they were regrouped into royal governments and intendencies they kept some
of their particularisms and in some cases even some kind of limited selfgovernment.
This situation changed in 1790 when the country was divided into departments that
were under the direct and absolute control of the central government.

In the course of the 19th century the idea of recreating regional entities – which
would take account of the regional cultural and economical particularisms and which
would more or less be based on the ancien lands – however gradually emerged.
At first the idea was only supported by some intellectuals, but in the early 20th
century – especially after the founding in 1900 of a Fédération régionale française
(French Regional Association) by Charles Brun (1870-1946) – it gained some popular
and political support and as a result France was divided in 1922 into 19 eceonmic
zones, coordinating the commercial and industrial activities of the departmental
chambers of commerce of the zone.

But the real change occured in 1941 when – following the complete reprganization of
the French governmental structures by the Vichy government – France (the occupied
as well as the non-occupied zone) was divided into 17 regions :

– 11 in the occupied zone and Northern France

– Angers – Nancy
– Bordeaux – Orléans
– Châlons-sur-Marne – Poitiers
– Dijon – Rennes
– Laon – Rouen
– Lille (in Northern Franc)

[not touched by the reorganization were the departments forming so-called Great-
Paris (Gross Paris) : Seine, Seine-et-Oise and Seine-et-Marne]

– 6 in the non occupied zone

– Clermont-Ferrand – Marseille
– Limoges – Montpellier
– Lyon – Toulouse

Each region was headed by a regional prefect (préfet régional) having :

– very extended economical and financial powers in all regions
– very extended police powers in the non-occupied regions.

(See also here for the German commands encompassing the regions of occupied France,
here for the German commands encompassing the southern regions 1942 – 1944 and here
for the Italian zone)

After the Liberation of 1944 the Provisional Government temporarily maintained the
division into regions, slightly modifying their frontiers. They were now headed by
Regional Commissioners of the Republic (Commissaires régionaux de la République)
with the same extended powers.
In 1946 the situation of before 1941 was restored.
__________________________________________________________________________________

ANGERS

The Region of Angers was in the occupied zone and covered :

– the departments of the Loire-Inférieure (= Loire-Atlantique), the Maine-et-Loire,
the Mayence and the Sarthe
– the occupied part of the department of the Indre-et-Loire.

The region was under the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk B

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the same area and the former non-occupied
part of the Indre-et-Loire.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Maine-et-Loire department.

1941 – 1943 Jean Rousillon 1896 – 1970
1943 – 1944 Charles Guérin Joçseph Louis Donati 1891 –

Regional Commissioners of the Republic
Commissaires régionaux de la République

1944 – 1945 Michel Debré “Jacquier” 1912 – 1996
1945 – 1946 Alain Savary 1918 – 1988
__________________________________________________________________________________

BORDEAUX

The Region of Bordeaux was in the occupied zone and covered the occupied parts of
the departments of the Basses-Pyrénées (= Pyrénées-Atlantiques), the Gironde and
the Landes.

The region was under the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk Bo(rdeaux) until 1942 and then
under the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk B.

The Commissariat of the Republic covered all of the three mentioned departments and
the department of the Lot-et-Garonne.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Gironde department.

1941 – 1942 Marie François Jules Pierre “Pierre-Alype” 1886 – 1956
1942 – 1944 Maurice Roch Antoine Sabatier 1897 – 1989

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1945 Gaston Cusin 1903 – 1993
__________________________________________________________________________________

CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE

The Region of Châlons-sur-Marne was in the occupied zone and covered the departments
of the Aube, the Haute-Marne and the Marne.

The region was under the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk C.

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the same area.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Marne department.

1941 – 1942 René Bousquet 1909 – 1993
1942 – 1944 Louis Alexandre Valère de Peretti
Della Rocca 1885 –

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Marcel Grégoire 1884 – 1969
__________________________________________________________________________________

CLERMONT-FERRAND

The Region of Clermont-Ferrand was in the non-occupied zone and covered :

– the departments of the Cantal, the Haute-Loire and the Puy-de-Dôme
– the non-occupied part of the department of the Allier.

Since 1942 the region was under the Hauptverbindungsstab Clermont-Ferrand

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the four departments, including the former
occupied part of Allier.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Puy-de-Dôme department.

1941 Jacques Charles Adrien Chevreux 1883 – 1951
1941 – 1944 Paul Ferdianad Eugène Brun 1892 – 1965

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Henri Ingrand 1908 – 2003
__________________________________________________________________________________

DIJON

The region of Dijon was in the occupied zone and covered :

– the departments of Belfort, the Côte-d’Or, the Doubs, the Haute-Saône, the Nievre
and the Yonne,
– the occupied parts of the departments of the Ain, the Allier, the Jura, the Saône
-et-Loire and of the Haute-Savoie.

The region was part of the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk C.

The Commissariat of the Republic covered all of the listed departments except Ain
and Allier.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Préfects of the Côte-d’Or department.

1941 Alfred Roger Hontebeyrie 1895 – 1969
1941 – 1943 Charles Guérin Joçseph Louis Donati s.a.
1943 – 1944 Jean François Quenette 1903 –
1944 George Albert Maurice Bernard 1890 – 1953

Regional Commissioners of the Republic
Commissaires régionaux de la République

1944 – 1945 Jean Bouhey 1898 – 1963
1945 – 1946 Jean Marie Albert Mairey, acting for
wounded Bouhey since 1944 1907 – 1982
__________________________________________________________________________________

LAON – SAINT-QUENTIN

The Region of Laon – Saint-Quentin was in the occupied zone and covered the Aisne,
Ardennes, Oise and Somme departments.

The region was part of the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk A

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the same area.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Aisne department

1941 – 1942 …
1942 – 1943 Émile Amédee Pelletier 1898 –
1943 – 1944 Gaston Jules Antoine Mumber 1897 – 1970
1944 Roger Marie Calentin Paul Homo 1892 – 1977

Regional Commisioner of the Republique
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Pierre Pène 1898 – 1972
__________________________________________________________________________________

LILLE

See here
__________________________________________________________________________________

LIMOGES

The region of Limoges was in the non-occupied zone and covered :

– the departments of the Corrèze, the Creuse and the Haute-Vienne
– the non-occupied parts of the Charente, the Cher, the Dordogne, the Indre, the
Indre-et-Loire and the Vienne.

In 1942 – 1943 the region was part of the Hauptverbindungsstab Clermont-Ferrand
(the whole area except the Haute-Vienne) and of the Hauptverbindungsstab Limoges
(the Haute-Vienne).
Thereafter the whole territory was part of the Hauptverbindungsstab Clermont-
Ferrand.

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the three listed departments and all of
the Dordogne and the Indre.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Haute-Vienne department.

1941 – 1942 Pierre Jean Berger 1898 –
1942 – 1943 Antoine Jean Marcel Lemoine 1888 –
1943 René Edouard Rivière 1900 –
1943 – 1944 Marc Paul Freund “Freund-Valade” 1899 –

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Pierre Bousicot 1899 –
__________________________________________________________________________________

LYON

The region of Lyon was in the non-occupied zone and covered :

– the departments of the Ardèche, the Drôme, the non occupied Haute-Savoie, the
Isère, the Loire, the Rhône and of Savoie.
– the non-occupied parts of the departments of the Ain, the Jura and the Saône-et
-Loire.

From 1940 to 1942 the area was within the Italian zone of influence. From 1942 to
1943 it was divided between the German Hauptverbindungsstab Lyon and the Italian
zone of occupation and since 1943 all of it was under the Hauptverbindungsstab Lyon

The Commissariat of the Republic covered roughly the same area, including all of the
Ain but without the former occupied zones of the Jura and the Saône-et-Loire.

Regional Prefects
Prefets régionaux

= Prefects of the Rhône Department

1941 – 1944 Alexandre Benoît Joseph Angeli 1893 – 1962
1944 Édouard Louis Joseph Marie Bonnefoy 1899 – 1945
1944 André Albert Jean François Boutenay 1905 – 1959

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1945 Yves Farge 1899 – 1953
__________________________________________________________________________________

MARSEILLE

The Region of Marseille was in the non-occupied zone. It covered the departments of
the Alpes-Maritimes, the Basses-Alpes (= Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), the Bouches-du-
Rhône, Corse, the Gard, the Hautes-Alpes, the Var and the Vaucluse.

From 1940 to 1942 the area (the Gard not included) was within the Italian zone of
influence. From 1942 to 1943 it was divided between the German Hauptverbindungsstab
Avignon and the Italian zone of occupation (1) and since 1943 all of it was under
the Hauptverbindungsstab (later Oberfeldkommandantur) Avignon

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the same area, except the Gard.

(1) It seems that during the period of effective Italian occupation 1942 – 1943,
the (or some of the) departments they occupied were detached from Marseille
and placed under the authority of the Prefect des Alpes-Maritmes, who held
the powers – but not the style – of a Regional Prefect (information on this
subject will be welcomed)

Prefects of the Alpes-Maritimes 1942 – 1943

1940 – 1943 Marcel Julien Henri Ribiere 1892 – 1986
1943 – 1944 Marie Joseph Jean Chaigneau 1898 – 1953

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefets of the Bouches-du-Rhône department.

1941 – 1942 Max Bonafous 1900 – 1975
1942 – 1943 Adelin Pascal Jean Joseph Rivalland 1893 – 1965
1943 – 1944 Antoine Jean Marcel Lemoine s.a.
1944 Jacques Félix Bussière 1895 – 1945
1944 Émile Gabriel Louis Marie Malican 1894 –

Regional Commissioners of the Republic
Commissaires régionaux de la République

1944 – 1945 Raymond Aubrac “Samuel” 1914 –
1945 – 1946 Paul Maurice Louis Haag 1891 – 1976
__________________________________________________________________________________

MONTPELLIER

The region of Montpellier was in the non-occupied zone. It covered the departments
of the Aude, the Aveyron, the Hérault, the Lozère and the Pyrénées-Orientales.

From 1942 to 1944 the region was under the Hauptverbindungsstab Montpellier, then
under the Oberfeldkommandantur Avignon.

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the same area and the Gard.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Hérault department.

1941 – 1942 Pierre Olivier de Sardan 1901 –
1942 – 1944 Alfred Roger Hontebeyrie 1895 – 1969
1944 Marie Jacques Augustin Michel 1882 –

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Jacques Bounin 1908 –
__________________________________________________________________________________

NANCY

See here
__________________________________________________________________________________

ORLEANS

The region of Orléans was in the occupied zone. It covered :

– the departments of the Eure-et-Loir, of the Loiret and of the Loir-et-Cher.
– the occupied parts of the departments of the Cher and of the Indre.

The region was part of the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk A

The Commissariat of the Republic also covered the former non-occupied parts of the
department of the Cher.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Loiret Department

1941 – 1942 Jacques Alexandre Moranne 1901 – 1982
1942 – 1944 Jacques Félix Bussière s.a.
1944 Ange Marie Pascal Eugène Chiappe 1889 – 1945

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 André Mars 1896 – 1957
__________________________________________________________________________________

POITIERS

The region of Poitiers was in the occupied zone and covered :

– the departments of the Charente-Maritime (= Charente-Inférieure until 1941), of
the Deux-Sèvres and of the Vendée
– the occupied parts of the Charente, the Dordogne and the Vienne

Until 1942 the region was ivided between the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk Bo (Charente
and Charente-Maritime) and the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk B (the others). Thereafter
all of it became part of the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk B

The Commissariat of the Repiblic also covered the former non-occpied parts of the
Charente and of the Vienne, but not the Dordogne.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Vienne Department

1941 – 1944 Mouis Jean Marie Bourgain 1881 – 1970

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Jean Schuhler 1909 –
__________________________________________________________________________________

RENNES

The region of Rennes was in the occupied zone and covered the departments of the
Côtes-du-Nord, the Finistère, the Ille-et-Vilaine and the Morbihan.

The region was part of the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk B

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the same area.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Ille-et-Vilaine

1941 – 1942 François Charles Joseph Ripert 1901 –
1942 – 1943 Jean François Quenette s.a.
1943 – 1944 Philibert Dupard 1890 – 1944
1944 Robert Martin 1895 – 1957

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Victor Le Gorgeu 1881 – 1963
__________________________________________________________________________________

ROUEN

The region of Rouen was in the occupied zone and covered the departments of the
Calvados, of the Eure, the Manche, the Orne and of the Seine-Inférieure (= Seine-
Maritime).

The region was part of the Militärverwaltungs-Bezirk A

The Commissariat of the Republic covered the same area.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefect of the Seine-Inférieure department (now Seine-Maritime)

1941 – 1942 René Bouffet s.a.
1942 – 1943 André Auguste Parmentier 1896 –
1943 – 1944 …
1944 Louis Marie Charles Dramand 1898 –

Regional Commissioner of the Republic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1946 Henri Bourdeau de Fontenay,
enstrusted by Gen. De Gaulle with
the administration of liberated
Normandy after the landing (thus
preventing the installation of an
allied military government in
France) 1900 – 1969
__________________________________________________________________________________

STRASBOURG

In 1940 the departments of the Bas- and the Haut-Rhin were detached from France to
form the territory of Elsass under a German civilian administrator.
In 1944 the region was returned to France.

Regional Commissioner of the Repûblic
Commissaire régional de la République

1944 – 1945 Charles Blondel 1895 –
__________________________________________________________________________________

TOULOUSE

The region of Toulouse was in the non-occupied zone and covered :

– the departments of the Ariège, the Gers, the Haute-Garonne, the Hautes-Pyrénées,
the Lot, the Lot-et-Garonne, the Tarn and the Tarn-et-Garonne
– the non-occupied parts of the departments of the Basses-Pyrénées, the Gironde
and the Landes.

Since 1942 the region was under the Hauptverbindungsstab Toulouse.

The Commissariat of the Republic did not include the former non-occupied parts of
the Basses-Pyrénées, the Gironde and the Landes nor the Lot-et-Garoonne.

Regional Prefects
Préfets régionaux

= Prefects of the Haute-Garonne

1941 – 1944 Léopold Marie Frédéric Chéneaux de Leyritz 1896 – 1970
1944 André Paul Sadon 1891 – 1965

Regional Commissioners of the Republique
Commissaires régionaux de la République

1944 Jean Cassou 1897 – 1981
1944 – 1946 Pierre Félix Berteaux 1907 – 1986

FRENCH OVERSEA DEPENDENCIES 1870 – 1945

In the period 1870 to 1945 French Oversea Possessions included :

notes I

– (AW) = Territories at some time part of the Theater Atlantic West
(C) = Concession in China
(EA) = Territories at some time part of the Government General of Equatorial
Africa
(I) = Territories at some time part of the Federation of Indochina
(M) = Mandated Territory
(WA) = Territories at some time part of the Government General of West Africa

– F. = the year the dependency – freely or forcebly – rallied to one of the
French leaders opposed to the Vichy regime (Darlan, De Gaulle or Giraud)

– freely rallying to the Free French of Gen. De Gaulle in 1940 were also
the French employees of the Suez Canal Company in Egypt,
– the Federation of Indochina and the Government General of West Africa
acted very indepently for most of the war.

Algeria since 1830 F.: 1942
Annam (I) since 1883
Cambodia (I) since 1863
Chad (EA) since 1900 F.: 1940
Cheikh Said from 1868 to 1936
Cilicia from 1919 to 1921
Cochinchina (I) since 1859
Dahomey (WA) since 1851/92 F.: 1942
French Cameroun (M) since 1916 F.: 1940
French Guiana (AW) since 1674 F.: 1943
French Guinea (WA) since 1837 F.: 1942
French Possessions on Saint Helena since 1858 F.: 1940
French Settlements in India since 1674 F.: 1940
French Settlements in Oceania since 1842 F.: 1940
French Somali Coast since 1862 F.: 1942
French Sudan (WA) since 1880 F.: 1942
French Togo (M) since 1914 F.: 1942
Gabon (EA) since 1839 F.: 1940
Guadeloupe and Dependencies (AW) since 1635 F.: 1943
Guangzhou (Canton) (C) from 1861 to 1943
Ivory Coast/Côte d’Ivoire (WA) since 1843 F.: 1940
Kwangchowan (Kouang-Tcheou-Wan)(I) from 1898 to 1943
Laos (I) since 1893
Lebanon (M) since 1918 F.: 1941
Madagascar and Dependencies since 1885 F.: 1942
Martinique (AW) since 1635 F.: 1943
Mauretania (WA) since 1904 F.: 1942
Middle Congo (EA) since 1886 F.: 1940
Morocco since 1912 F.: 1942
New Caledonia and Dependencies since 1853 F.: 1940
New Hebrides since 1887/1906 F.: 1940
Niger (WA) since 1899 F.: 1942
Réunion since 1642 F.: 1942
St Pierre-et-Miquelon (AW) since 1604 F.: 1941
Senegal (WA) since 1626 F.: 1942
Shanghai (C) from 1849 to 1943
Syria (M) since 1920 F.: 1941
Tianjin (Tïen-Tsin)(C) from 1861 to 1943
Tonkin (I) since 1883
Tunesia since 1881 F.: 1943
Oubangui-Chari (EA) since 1894 F.: 1940
Upper Volta since 1895 F.: 1942
Wallis-et-Futuna since 1887 F.: 1942
Wuhan (Han-K’eou) (C) from 1886 to 1943

notes II

Annam : In 1888 the town of Danang was detached to form a separate French
possession (I)

Lebanon : Independence proclaimed 1941, de facto postponed until 1946

Madagascar : – 1885 was the year the Kingdom of Madagascar (or Imerina) formally
became a French protectorate.
– until 1896 France had three separate possessions on Madagascar :
– Diégo-Suarez (since 1885)
– Nossi-Bé (since 1840)
– Sainte-Marie de Madagascar (since 1750)
– major dependencies of Madagascar included the :
– Comoros (Dep. since 1912)
– French Southern Islands and Territories (Dep. since 1924)

New Hebrides : Condominium with the UK

Syria : Independence proclaimed 1941, de facto postponed until 1946

Tonkin : In 1888 the towns of Hanoi and Haiphong were detached to form
separate French possessions (I)

To this list may perhaps be added some territories in Europe that were not exactly
French dependencies, but nevertheless had at some time – or still have – a special
link with France :

– Andorra : not linked to France itself, but to its Head of State who also was/is
the Head of State of the Principality.
– Faisans Island
– The French Railway Station in Basel-Stadt
– Monaco : an indpendent state but linked to France by several treaties.
– Territories under French military occupation such as :

– Luxembourg : 1918 – 1919
– Rhineland : 1918 – 1929 (as part of a general allied occupation)
– the Ruhr : 1923 – 1925 (together with Belgium)
– Val d’Aosta : 1945

CHEIKH SAID

In 1868 the French trading company Bazin & Rabaud bought the territory of Cheikh
Saïd from a local Yemenite chief to use it as a trading post and a coal depot for
its ships navigating through the newly build Suez Canal.
The territory was effectively occupied in 1870, but soon afterwards again abandoned.
In the 1880’s the company did a new attempt to occupy the territory, this time also
asking for governemnt support and a formal annexation. But the French government –
who just had established a colony in neighbouring French Somaliland and who didn’t
want to expand in what was seen as a British zone of influence – never showed any
real interest, despite campaigns orchestrated by the Cy., especially during WWI,
when the territory was presented as a possible base against the Osmanli.
Despite this official attitude, Cheikh Saïd continued to be seen as a real French
dependency by many people (1) for quite some time. The situation was only clarified
in 1936 when France openly recognized the territory as a part of Yemen.

(1) Even the wellknown and prestigious Larousse Encyclopedia listed Cheikh
Saïd as a “territoire français non occupé effectivement” in its edition
of 1907.

FAISANS ISLAND

Faisans Island (Basq. : Konpantzia, Cast.: Isla de los Faisanes, French : Île des
Faisans) is in the middle of the Bidassoa river forming the boundary between France
and Spain.
Since the Middle Ages it was used as a neutral zone where French and Spanish locals
and officials met to settle fisher quarrels, to exchange prisoners and to sign
treaties (2)
By the Treaty of Bayonne of 1856 it was declared a condominium of both countries.
(3)
Accoording to the same treaty the administration of the island (apparentely only
some police patrols) was/is carried out by each of the two nations for 6 months a
year (aug 12 to feb 11 by France and feb 12 to aug 11 by Spain)

(2) The most famous of these treaties was that of the Pyrénées of 1659 ending
the war between the two nations.

(3) As a result of a misintepretation of the treaty another minor island –
named Île de la Conférence in French – was also included in the territory.

The English name which is sometimes used – Pheasants Island – can also be
seen as a misinterpretation as the French “faisan” doesn’t mean “pheasant”
but “those who do, who act” and refers to the delegates who signed the
treaties or “faceries”

FRENCH RAILWAY STATION IN BASEL-STADT

The French Railway Station (Gare française/Französiche Bahnhof) – one of the three
stations in the Swiss Canton of Basel-Stadt – was build in 1845. It was – and still
is – a French enclave administered by the Cie. de la Ligne Srtasbourg – Bâle until
1854, then by the Cie. des Chemins de Fer de l’Est and since 1938 by the Socièté
Nationale des Chemins de Fer français (SNCF).

RELICS OF THE PAST

Two territories in France were – and still are (2004) – symbolic remnants of past
times without any real political signification, but with a particular position as
far as French and international law are concerned :

– the Abbey of Hautecombe
– the Pays Quint

THE ABBEY OF HAUTECOMBE

The Royal Abbey of Hautecombe in Savoy was founded in the early 12th century and
soon became the major religious center of the Duchy.
It was destroyed by the French in 1793, but restored by the Sardinian King Carlo
Felice (1765 – 1931, r.: 1821 – 1831) in 1826.
Like the rest of Savoy it was ceded to France in 1860. However, as the abbey was a
burial place of several Savoy princes and of King Carlo Felice and as some of the
monks were members of the Sardinian royal family, the abbey was granted a somewhat
particular legal position by a French-Italian convention of 1862 :

– France agreed to never change the religious purpose of Hautecombe and to provide
all support necessary for the maintainance of the buildings and the continuation
of the religious services.
– At the same time the royal appartments in the abbey remained a possession of the
Savoy family, who also kept the patronage over the abbey and the right to appoint
its superiors. (1)

(1) A consequence of this agreement was that, although the abbey did not enjoy
extraterritoriality, not all French laws – especially not those dealing
with the Catholic religion – were in vigor in its territory, the reason why
it survived the wave of secularizations of the early 20th century.

Abbots (A), Priors (P) and Superiors (S) of the Abbey

1864 – 1874 Archange Dumont (P)
1875 – 1878 Athanase Martin (P)
1878 – 1883 Célestin Gillet (P) 1813 – 1892
1883 – 1888 Maur Fignes (P)
1888 – 1910 Symphorien Gaillemin (P)
1911 – 1921 Jean de la Croix Marcadier (P)
1920 – 1922 Léon Guilloreau (A)
1922 – 1941 Bernard Laure (A)
1941 – 1943 André Cabassut (S)
1943 – 1978 Edward Dupriez (S)
__________________________________________________________________________________

THE PAYS QUINT

Pays Quint (Basq. : Kintoa) was the name given to pasture lands lying between the
(French) Basque valley of Baigorry (Basq. : Baigorri) and (Spanish) Basque vallyes
such as the valley of Baztán, the valley of Roncevalles (Basq. : Orreaga – Fr. :
Ronceveaux), etc.
Until the 17th century it was a neutral land used in common as a grazing land by
all communities, only inhabited by some shepherds in the grazing seasons, but then
it started to be colonized by the inhabitants of Baigorry, who established villages
in the area. (2)
The ensuing conflicts lasted until 1856 when France and Spain signed the Treaty of
Bayonne that fixed their frontiers. The Pays Quint was awarded to Spain, but the
inhabitants of Baigorry were granted very extended privileges as they :

– retained the exclusive and perpetual right to use the Northern Pays-Quint as a
permanent grazing land, (3)
– were also granted the right to use the grass and the water of the Southern Pays
-Quint for their herds, in exchange of a yearly fee payed by the French government
and the right of the inhabitants of the valley of Baztán to freely drive their
herds across French territory.

(2) An agreement for the common use of grazing – or other – lands was not
unusual among the semi-independent Basque Pyrenean valleys.
Such treaties – styled “faceries” – often also had political terms as
they proclaimed the neutrality of the signatories in the wars of their
overlords France, Spain and for a time England. (this political aspect
disappeared in the 18th century)

Other surviving “Facerie lands” included and still include :

– Faisans Island (in a modified form)
– the Perpetual Facerie between French Cize (Basq.: Garazi) and Spanish
Aezcoa (Basq.: Aézkoa) (since 1…)
– the Perpetual Facerie between French Baretous and Spanish Roncal (Basq.:
Erronkari) (since 1375) (4)

(3) It’s this point of “perpetual use” that makes the position of the Pays Quint
unique in modern international law.

(4) Each year on jul 13 Barétous still presents 3 heifters “aged 2 without
spots” to Roncal.

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